MicroRNA influence many cellular pathways, and are involved in cell development and differentiation.
Dis-regulation of microRNA was found to be part of many pathologies and therefore microRNAs are considered to be important molecular candidates in both diagnostics and therapeutics in many clinical indications. There are around 2000 known microRNAs in humans, and more in other species, with great interspecies conservation and homology.
Endogenous microRNAs can serve as biomarkers since their dis-regulation in many disease conditions can be detected, as they are stable, rather easy to detect molecules. For therapeutic purposes, microRNAs can be inhibited (anti-miR molecules) or be replaced (miR mimetic) in the targeted tissue. The therapeutic paths are challenging yet carry a great promise.